The effects of sanctions on Russia so far are open to debate, because low oil prices plunged the country into a recession in the same year that some of the penalties were implemented.
Heading into the new year, tensions between Moscow and Washington show no sign of abating. The United States is continuing its investigations of Russian interference in the 2016 U.S. presidential election; both sides have accused each other of arms treaty violations; and both countries are continuing to build up their positions across the globe as they prepare for a long-term struggle. In addition, the United States has specified four areas -- each with varying effects and degrees of political fallout -- for further sanctions against Russia. The added pressure on the Kremlin comes as President Vladimir Putin faces re-election and Russia grows increasingly fragile....
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