What Happened: The White House has announced that Turkey will be blocked from further participation in the F-35 fighter jet program over its acquisition of the Russian S-400 missile defense system, The New York Times reported July 17.
Why It Matters: The decision marks the first U.S. punitive measure imposed on Turkey over the S-400 procurement. Turkey's exclusion from the partnership would reportedly cost the United States roughly $500 million to $600 million, according to Pentagon estimates, whereas Turkey could stand to lose $10 million to $30 million.
Background: Although it remains unclear what future sanctions the United States could impose against Turkey under the Countering America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act (CAATSA), Washington has already established that Turkish pilots in the F-35 program must leave the country by July 31.
- Why the S-400 Missile is Highly Effective — If Used Correctly (July 12, 2019)
- A Game of Turkish Brinksmanship on Missile Defense (June 27, 2019)
- U.S. Nuclear Weapons Sharing Coming Under Increased European Scrutiny (June 27, 2019)